The evidence of personal names and families
Transliterated double name on a wooden mummy label
Labels such as the one on display here ensured that a mummy could be properly identified. The name of the deceased appears in Demotic script on one side and Greek on the other. Pachoumis is the Greek transliteration of the Egyptian name meaning "The eagle" (P3-chm). The man's patronymic, given in the Greek genitive as Pantbôoutos, is an Egyptian name meaning "He of the avenging gods" (P3j-n3-tb3.w). Unlike the Greek side, the Egyptian also gives a third name, which is apparently that of Pachoumis' grandfather, "He of the ht-daimon" (P3j-ht).
Translated double names: Marres alias Dikaios and Purros alias Phmersis
Double names are hard to track because frequently only one name was used at a time. Marres, who appears in many texts, is an Egyptian name ("Justice of Re"), but in a text displayed here his Greek name is used, Dikaios ("Just-man"), an approximate translation. Likewise the man frequently referred to as Phmersis is probably the same as Purros (i.e. Pyrrhos); both names mean "The red one."
P.Tebt. IV 1136. 20 and 58; P.Tebt. IV 1144. 61 and 145
The function of double names: The case of Menches alias Asklepiades,kômogrammateus of Kerkeosiris
In the later Ptolemaic period Menches used his Egyptian name in his capacity as kômogrammateus(village scribe), a traditionally Egyptian office; in a private law suit brought before the chrêmatistai(Greek judges), his double name Menches alias Asklepiades is given. Arthur Verhoogt's reconstruction of Menches's family tree, based on this land sale document, demonstrates that the scribe, his father and grandfather were the descendants of Greek settlers and that each of them had a double name. The phrase translated "Greek born in the country [i.e., Egypt]" (Hellên egchôrios) is the Greek rendering of the common Demotic expression "Ionian born in Egypt" (Wynn ms n Kmt) used to identify "Greeks."
P.Tebt. I 164 fr. 2
The case of Polemon alias Petesouchos, kômogrammateus of Kerkeosiris
Polemon alias Petesouchos, the successor of Menches alias Asklepiades in the office ofkômogrammateus (village scribe) and his probable nephew, likewise only used his Egyptian name (Petesouchos) in his official capacity; however, in a personal lawsuit addressed to the chrêmatistai (Greek judges), he used both names. The texts produced by Menches and Polemon indicate that the name used in a particular instance is likely to be occasioned by the function of the text in which it appears.
P.Tebt. I 29
The case of Polemon, epistatês of Kerkeosiris
A contemporary of Menches in the Greek office of epistatês (police chief) used a Greek name, Polemon, exclusively. The following three Greek texts raise the possibility that this same Polemon is actually the brother of Menches alias Asklepiades and the father of Petesouchos alias Polemon. The resulting picture is of one family of elites that controls both the traditionally Greek and Egyptian offices of the village of Kerkeosiris.
P.Tebt. I 16; P.Tebt. I 19; and P.Tebt. I 43
Extracted from mummy cartonnage, this collection of abstracts probably originated from a local records office and is notable for its very difficult script (masterfully read by P.Tebt. III co-editor J.G. Smyly). It includes summaries of land leases and sales, loans, accounts, dowry and marriage contracts between individuals with a great number of civic and regional affiliations.
P.Tebt. III 815 fr. 2 recto
Shifting status: Macedonian to Cretan
The mutability of ethnic designations used to identify individuals is well-documented in texts recording the transfer of men from one military unit to another. Cavalry units (hipparchies) were occasionally named after the original regional affiliation of its members. When an individual moved to a new hipparchy, he might adopt the ethnic of his new unit. Such is the case for Theotinus son of Phileas who becomes a "Mysian of the fourth hipparchy" after first appearing as a "Persian of the epigonê" (which was itself a suspect ethnic, see below) (P.Fay. 11 and 12).
In this Greek letter two officials, Sosos and Aigyptos, introduce a new cavalryman, a Macedonian named Asklepiades son of Ptolemaios, who has been appointed to the polity of the Cretans.
P.Tebt. I 32
Shifting status: Egyptian to Macedonian
Egyptians might also have attained official Greek status through military service. Egyptian names are occasionally found in lists of katoikoi(military settlers), but there seems to have been a preference, as we might expect, for adopting Greek names in what was felt to be a Greek context. Ten texts excavated from Tebtunis witness the gradual replacement of the Egyptian nomenclature of a man who first appears in the texts as Maron (itself a Hellenized form of the Egyptian Marres) alias Nektsaphthis, son of Petosiris. Although he first appears in these documents with a double name in119/118-118 BCE (P.Tebt. I 62. 110, 84. 115), his father only acquired the Greek name Dionysios over time (P.Tebt. I 61. (a) 40, 64. (a) 107). Within a few years the Egyptian names of both men cease to appear altogether in favor of their Greek names (P.Tebt. I 63. 127, 85. 59, 75. 10, 245). Two of the last documents mentioning Maron concern land granted to him for his military service (P.Tebt. I 106 in 101 BCE and P.Tebt. I 105 in 103 BCE); in each he is called a Macedonian.
P.Tebt. I 61 (a) fr. 2 recto; P.Tebt. I 75 fr. 3 recto
At Tebtunis, Grenfell and Hunt excavated four of the ninety-two known texts that refer to "Village of the Syrians" (P.Tebt. I 701, 706, 814, 815). A trace of the original population of the village is perhaps evident in the ethnic, "Syro-Egyptian," assigned to Petesouchos, son of Psenithes, in this text.
P.Tebt. III 814 fr. 1 recto
The Syrian quarter at Tebtunis
Several texts excavated by Grenfell and Hunt from Roman period houses in Tebtunis mention parts of the town called the "Syrian quarter" and "Macedonian quarter." Such quarters are attested in other cities, most famously at Memphis where some ethnically affiliated quarters may have been walled. Nine second-century CE papyri excavated by Grenfell and Hunt at Tebtunis refer to the town's Syrian quarter (P.Tebt.II 318, 322, 351, 397, 618, 621, 628, 631, 635); although the ethnic may have characterized the population at an earlier date, the extant Roman period texts do not indicate its occupation by people of specifically Syrian descent.
P.Tebt. II 318
At Tebtunis Grenfell and Hunt excavated seven of the sixty-four texts known to the present mentioning the "Village of the Arabs" (P.Tebt. II 538, 736, III 848, 850, 852, 853, 1029). The ethnic affiliation of at least some of the village's inhabitants is confirmed by the mention of an Arab contingent of guards from Arabôn kômê in the following text. Although the end of each line is missing, making it difficult to translate, the letter concerns the security of the nome's desert approaches guarded by the aforementioned Arabs together with mercenary soldiers and police.
P.Tebt. III 736 verso
Willy Clarysse's analysis of the personal names of Samareia's known residents in the third and second centuries BCE suggests that at least half were of Jewish origin. Six texts excavated by Grenfell and Hunt at Tebtunis mention the village (P.Tebt.III 566, 800, 820, 873, 882, 1027). In the following petition a man with a Jewish name, Sabattaios, who in fact identifies himself as a Jew, petitions the kômogrammateus (village scribe) of Samareia, complaining that his wife had been attacked and injured by a woman with the Jewish name Joanna.
P.Tebt. III 800
In this Demotic contract, summarized in Greek at the bottom, Pakemis son of Pakemis, acknowledges the loan of the dowry of his wife Tameische (Greek, Tameischis), daughter of Sokonopis, and promises to repay it. Here "Persian" does not seem to indicate descent, but describes a man with the status of a debtor. In this example, the subject has an Egyptian personal name, but "Persian of the epigonê" is just as frequently used to describe people with Greek names.
P.Tebt. II 386
The family drama played out in the following petition witnesses both the frequency with which residents of Egypt displayed their new Roman status and the endurance of the double name (evidenced by Sarapion alias Alexandros). The papyrus was discovered tied together with eight other texts (P.Tebt. II 285, 319, 335, 378, 404, 406, 424, 588); Arthur Verhoogt has suggested that these formed part of Aurelia Sarapias' family papers, which she bundled together when she returned to her paternal house upon the death of her husband.
P.Tebt. II 326
Letter reporting the qualifications of two priests
As demonstrated in this Greek letter, qualification for the Egyptian priesthood in the Roman period might include proof of descent from a priestly family and knowledge of Egyptian language and scripts. Although it has been argued that these restrictions might have been imposed to isolate Egyptians socially, it is perhaps more likely that they were adopted to preserve elite Egyptian culture.
P.Tebt. II 291
Saturday, March 15, 2014
fayuum arts are depictions of greek
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- Fayum portraits are depictions of greek settlers
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- 친일파 종류
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